Hemorrhagic fever is a perplexing problem, which thus far has been only partially solved. The causative organism, vector, and mode of transmission have not been defined. Many of the clinical and pathological findings are bizarre and unusual. Pathological physiology is puzzling. The spotty geographic incidence, the semiyearly outbreaks, and the limited endemic areas are all remarkable facets. The therapeutic management of the condition has proved equally perplexing. All measures that normally would be expected to be effective have been disappointing. No single agent has been shown to have dramatic effect. In fact, antibiotics, corticotropin (ACTH), cortisone, convalescent serum, convalescent whole blood, and the galaxy of agents used in the hemorrhagic diatheses have failed to have significant effect. Clinical management has resolved itself essentially into symptomatic care plus some measures that at first glance seem unphysiological, yet have reduced the death rate to 4%.
The acute febrile phase of this condition
Katz S, Leedham CL, Kessler WH. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF HEMORRHAGIC FEVER. JAMA. 1952;150(14):1363–1366. doi:10.1001/jama.1952.03680140001001
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