• Intrinsic renal disease, which presents no characteristic urograms and in which urinalysis or clinical findings do not necessarily reveal the pathological condition, may be diagnosed by renal biopsy. Once the location of the lower-lying right kidney is visualized by urography, precise needle puncture can be performed through the back. The procedure is not without risk. Hemorrhagic tendencies must be ruled out, and there are a few specific contraindications, including renal tumor, hydronephrosis, uremia, and solitary kidney.
Lich R. RENAL BIOPSY. JAMA. 1957;163(6):420–422. doi:10.1001/jama.1957.02970410010004
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