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The treatment of pulmonary edema has become fairly standardized. Sedation, bloodless phlebotomy with tourniquets or blood pressure cuffs, administration of oxygen and mercurial diuretics, and/or rapid digitalization are the measures most commonly employed. Bloodless phlebotomy may be used in all cases of pulmonary edema, except for some instances of high output failure. All other forms of treatment have to be varied according to the needs of each patient. The beneficial results of bloodless phlebotomy have been recognized by the medical profession for a great many years. In spite of this, however, there has been no practical and at the same time exact method of performing it, so that it is generally used as a last rather than a first resort. Undoubtedly, a great many lives might have been saved in the past had this form of treatment been used promptly and efficiently. Actual phlebotomy or bloodletting is rarely indicated, except
Seligman H. NEW APPARATUS FOR TREATMENT OF PULMONARY EDEMA. JAMA. 1956;161(8):721–722. doi:10.1001/jama.1956.62970080001016
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