• The possibility of a ureteral tumor should be considered in any case of unilateral hydronephrosis in which the cause is not evident. In 20 cases of primary neoplasms of the ureter, 14 diagnosed as carcinoma and 6 as papilloma, 17 of the tumors were located in the lower half of the ureter. Hematuria was present microscopically in 70% (14) of the cases, and in almost all of these cases the urine was grossly bloody. The best treatment for this type of tumor, assuming a normal kidney on the opposite side, is complete nephroureterectomy with segmental bladder resection.
Twinem FP. PRIMARY TUMORS OF THE URETER. JAMA. 1957;163(10):808–813. doi:10.1001/jama.1957.02970450010004
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