• Persons who were involved in litigation relating to paternity were invited to submit to blood-grouping tests after the cases had been settled by the defendant's admission of paternity. Cooperation was obtained in 67 cases, and the bloods were typed by the A-B-O system, the M-N system, and the Rh-Hr system. Three children were found by the A-B-O system not to be the offspring of the men who had admitted paternity; similarly the M-N and the Rh-Hr systems excluded three and two children respectively. In one of these instances a child was excluded by both the M-N and the Rh-Hr systems. It was probable that in 12 out of these 67 cases the men who had admitted paternity were not the actual fathers. Admissions of paternity were thus found unreliable. It is urged, in the interests of justice, that a blood test should be ordered in every case involving a charge of paternity.
Sussman LN, Schatkin SB. BLOOD-GROUPING TESTS IN UNDISPUTED PATERNITY PROCEEDINGS. JAMA. 1957;164(3):249–250. doi:10.1001/jama.1957.02980030025006
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