• Exact and early diagnosis of bronchopulmonary abnormalities in children is important because some conditions formerly irremediable can now be corrected surgically. Tracheoesophageal fistula, for example, can and should be repaired before chronic pneumonitis develops. Diagnosis of tracheoesphageal fistula without esophageal atresia by endoscopic means alone is difficult, but it is rendered easier and more precise by combining bronchoscopy and bronchography under general anesthesia in the technique here outlined. In bronchography for other conditions, iodized oil is injected by catheter through an endotracheal tube under fluoroscopic control, and each lobe is filled as the patient is turned into various positions. After the desired roentgenograms have been obtained, the oil is removed by aspiration. The causation of stridor, persistent atelectasis, and other abnormalities may thus be explained. Recent advances in intrathoracic surgery, especially about the aortic arch, have made it possible to eradicate the cause of the symptoms in many such cases.
Ferguson CF, Flake CG. BRONCHOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PEDIATRIC PROBLEMS. JAMA. 1957;164(5):518–521. doi:10.1001/jama.1957.02980050008003
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