In areas of the world where standards of hygiene are generally poor, exposure to poliomyelitis virus and the subsequent development of antibodies is almost universal. It occurs at an earlier age than in communities in which hygienic conditions are better. The spread of the etiological agent is facilitated by crowded living and frequent pollution of the environment.1 The distribution of antibodies against the three recognized types of poliomyelitis virus is similar in certain areas of the world with comparable sanitary, climatic, and hygienic conditions.2 Several workers have observed that a high proportion of children living in poor social and economic conditions in the United States are immune. In contrast, the proportion of immune children in some of our "best" areas is almost "frighteningly" low.M. Martins da Silva and his colleagues,3 University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, examined 185 pregnant women for the presence of naturally occurring antibodies
RESEARCH REVIEWS. JAMA. 1957;164(11):1294–1296. doi:10.1001/jama.1957.02980110120027
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