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We have long been concerned with the problem of exposure to irradiation in the performance of cerebral angiography. The lead rubber drapes suggested for protection have proved cumbersome in our experience. The amount of radiation scatter encountered with careful centering and the use of small cones still is hazardous. Automatic injection devices are limited by the handicaps incurred by losing the desired "feel" of the injection and the expense and complexity of such apparatus.
Up to the present time we have used a combination of careful coning, lead rubber aprons on the operator, and a hasty retreat from the site of the procedure immediately after injecting the contrast medium. This has been fairly successful because the chance of disengaging the Cournand needle is lessened by attaching the syringe to the needle with a 12-in. length of flexible sterile plastic tubing (Venotubes, Abbott Laboratories).
It occurred to us that a hydraulic
Epstein JA, Epstein BS. HYDRAULIC DEVICE FOR REMOTE CONTROL OF INJECTION DURING CAROTID ANGIOGRAPHY. JAMA. 1957;165(6):679–680. doi:10.1001/jama.1957.72980240001010
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