It is extremely important to differentiate between causative micro-organisms in urinary infection and those which are merely contaminants. Despite meticulous preparation of the urethral meatus and surrounding surface, the anterior part of the urethra retains its "normal" flora. A technique is presented to prevent or at least lessen the risk of contamination in obtaining a bladder urine culture.
Clabaugh GF, Rhoads PS. EFFICACY OF URETHRAL CATHETERIZATION FOR DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION: RESULTS WITH A NEW TECHNIQUE. JAMA. 1957;165(7):815–818. doi:10.1001/jama.1957.02980250049012
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