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October 19, 1957


JAMA. 1957;165(7):838. doi:10.1001/jama.1957.02980250072017

WITH the publication in this issue (page815) of the report by Clabaugh and Rhoads, the subject of the diagnosis of urinary tract infections is reopened. The of potentially pathogenic organisms in a so-called clean specimen of urine, although suggestive of such an infection, is far from being conclusive evidence of it. Guze and Beeson,1 quoted by these authors, found that despite use of careful aseptic and antiseptic technique some bacteria were transferred from the urethra to the bladder during catheterization and concluded that obtaining a specimen of urine in this way does not provide a completely trustworthy specimen for bacteriological culture. Even though the urinary meatus is scrupulously cleaned, organisms comprising what may be considered the normal urethral flora remain in the anterior portion of the urethra. Philpot2 investigated the flora of the so-called clean or midstream voided urine of normal men and catheterized specimens from normal