An aqueous influenza vaccine containing the A/Japan/305/57 strain was compared with a placebo in a study of 2,364 Army recruits. The vaccine was injected subcutaneously in 1-cc. doses containing about 250 CCA (chick cell agglutinating) units. The data, obtained during the declining phase of an outbreak of respiratory disease composed largely but not entirely of Asian influenza, showed 20 cases of respiratory illness occurring 10 or more days after inoculation among 916 recruits in the vaccinated group and 55 comparable cases among 1,448 recruits in the placebo group. The difference would occur by chance only once in 36 trials and is evidence of a protective effect. Estimate of effectiveness was 43%. Since not all of the illness could be considered to be influenza, the estimate of effectiveness is minimal.
Culver JO, Nitz MRE, Lennette EH. THE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MONOVALENT ASIAN-STRAIN VACCINE AGAINST ASIAN INFLUENZA. JAMA. 1957;165(17):2174–2177. doi:10.1001/jama.1957.02980350032007
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