Acute gonorrhea/ urethritis in women has become rare, but chronic nonspecific granular urethritis is now frequent. Polyps are most often found associated with the latter, and may be responsible for the appearance of blood toward the end of each urination. Caruncles near the urethral meatus at times cause bleeding and pain, but they are usually symptomless and rarely undergo malignant degeneration. Obstruction of the urethra in children by folds of mucous membrane can cause symptoms of all degrees of severity including intractable enuresis and persistent infection; removal of such folds by fulguration or resection has often relieved these symptoms completely, but must be done with care to avoid producing incontinence and fistulas. The treatment of strictures is very difficult; scarring leads to rigidity of the urethral wall and incontinence at the sphincter, and the latter is not relieved by repeated dilatations. Urethral diverticula can be rendered visible by positive pressure urethrography; they sometimes afford an explanation of chronic or recurrent cystitis. Malignant tumors in and about the urethra are very difficult to treat surgically. Treatment by radiation has given better results in two series of malignant tumors in this location.
Everett HS. DISEASES OF THE FEMALE URETHRA. JAMA. 1958;166(3):206–210. doi:10.1001/jama.1958.02990030004002
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