When the physician encounters a patient with spontaneous pneumothorax, several courses of therapy are available. For purposes of simplification it may be stated that the two general methods are the medical or "watchful expectancy" program and the surgical or aspiration method. Whereas 30 years ago treatment was principally limited to medical management, it has become increasingly more common to utilize the aspiration method. There are several reasons for this change, which are as follows: (1) earlier reexpansion of lung, (2) immediate relief of symptoms, (3) lower incidence of complications, (4) shorter period of hospitalization, and (5) an earlier return to economic productivity. It has been customary to refer to the medical or nonaspiration program as the conservative program. We are in agreement with the principles expressed in the paper by Campbell and Varco1 in which they state that the medical management is "scarcely conservative of the patient's comfort, convenience,
Knuth WP, Wright KJ, Jenko VA. SIMPLE SURGICAL TREATMENT OF SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX BY USE OF A PLASTIC NEEDLE. JAMA. 1958;168(2):177–178. doi:10.1001/jama.1958.63000020005007b
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