Classification of urinary calculi depends on comparatively simple chemical tests. Such tests yield valuable clues as to the cause of the lithiasis and the aim of treatment. The pH of urine normally fluctuates daily over a range from pH 4.5 to 7.5. Isohydruria, a narrowing of the range of diurnal fluctuation, is one of the possible causes of lithiasis and is easily remedied by diet and drugs. The list of other possible causes includes a number of conditions that are easily remedied once the cause is identified.
Winer JH. PRACTICAL VALUE OF ANALYSIS OF URINARY CALCULI. JAMA. 1959;169(15):1715–1718. doi:10.1001/jama.1959.03000320017004
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