The late results of operations to correct stricture of the bile ducts were investigated in 265 patients who responded to requests for follow-up study. They had undergone altogether 308 operations from 1 to 25 years before the time of the study. In every case but one the stricture followed surgical injury. The operations done to correct the stricture were usually either choledochocholedochostomy or choledochoduodenostomy, and the results of these two were about the same, with 68 and 69% of good or excellent results in the patients reporting. Even when strictures were so located that no patent extrahepatic duct was visible, it was often possible to relieve the biliary obstruction by special procedures. Two patients were pregnant at the time of operation, and there were 19 subsequent deliveries in 14 patients, all but one delivery being normal, full-term, and spontaneous. Among the 191 patients followed up for more than five years, there were 28 deaths and 16 of these were ascribed to cirrhosis or liver failure.
Walters W, Ramsdell JA. STUDY OF THREE HUNDRED EIGHT OPERATIONS FOR STRICTURE OF BILE DUCTS: FOLLOW-UP PERIODS OF ONE TO FIVE OR FIVE TO TWENTY-FIVE YEARS. JAMA. 1959;171(7):872–875. doi:10.1001/jama.1959.03010250010003
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