The report in 1926 by Minot and Murphy1 of the effectiveness of liver therapy in pernicious anemia soon was followed by the development of active concentrates of liver suitable for clinical use. By 1936 relatively purified extracts of liver were available for intramuscular injection, in addition to those preparations which earlier had been developed for oral administration. Owing to differences in animal sources and in manufacturing methods, the therapeutic effectiveness of these substances was not directly related to the amount of liver from which they were derived and could be estimated only by clinical tests of the final product.
Standardized Liver Concentrates
Standardization of preparations intended for the treatment of pernicious anemia was first prescribed by the Eleventh Decennial Revision of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States on June 1, 1936, as the responsibility of the Anti-Anemia Preparations Advisory Board.2 In 1938, the Board defined as a U.
Bethell FH, Castle WB, Conley CL, London IM. PRESENT STATUS OF TREATMENT OF PERNICIOUS ANEMIA: NINTH ANNOUNCEMENT OF U. S. P. ANTI-ANEMIA PREPARATIONS ADVISORY BOARD. JAMA. 1959;171(15):2092–2094. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1959.73010330006014
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