Chronic or recurrent urethritis, with or without cystitis (urethritis-cystitis syndrome) occurs so frequently in women that both the patients and their physicians are likely to let the lesion escape adequate treatment. The proximity of the urinary opening to the vaginal and anal orifices allows constant exposure of the urethra to the mixed bacterial flora of the vaginal canal and rectum. The most common pathological lesion found in 2,450 women with this syndrome was a meatal stricture of the urethra. Complete cure was more often accomplished when a specific etiological diagnosis had been obtained by careful inspection of the urethral meatus, palpation of the urethral glands, and panendoscopic examination of the urethral lumen.
McDonald HP, Upchurch WE, Artime M. URETHRITIS-CYSTITIS SYNDROME IN THE FEMALE. JAMA. 1959;171(17):2291–2295. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1959.03010350013003
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