Malignant disease was diagnosed in 404 of 38,967 children admitted to a hospital during six and one-half years. In children less than one year old, renal and adrenosympathetic tumors were the most frequent type. Thereafter leukemia and lymphoma predominated until the age of 8 years. In the 10-to-13-year age groups, inclusive, tumors of the central nervous system and eye predominated. Twelve cases of bone tumor were observed, all in children past their second birthday. About one-third of the 404 patients came to medical attention because of a mass. The most frequent error at the initial examination was a diagnosis of upper respiratory infection. The two types of malignancy most frequently misdiagnosed were Hodgkin's disease and neuroblastoma. The fact that 75% of those who died from malignant disease were dead at the end of the first 12 months indicates the need for prompt action when the diagnosis is made.
Kiesewetter WB, Mason EJ. MALIGNANT TUMORS IN CHILDHOOD. JAMA. 1960;172(11):1117–1121. doi:10.1001/jama.1960.03020110001001