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July 9, 1960


Author Affiliations


Lecturer in Surgery (Dr. Kouwenhoven), Resident Surgeon (Dr. Jude), and Assistant in Surgery (Mr. Knickerbocker), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

JAMA. 1960;173(10):1064-1067. doi:10.1001/jama.1960.03020280004002

Cardiac resuscitation after cardiac arrest or ventricular fibrillation has been limited by the need for open thoracotomy and direct cardiac massage. As a result of exhaustive animal experimentation a method of external transthoracic cardiac massage has been developed. Immediate resuscitative measures can now be initiated to give not only mouth-to-nose artificial respiration but also adequate cardiac massage without thoracotomy. The use of this technique on 20 patients has given an over-all permanent survival rate of 70%. Anyone, anywhere, can now initiate cardiac resuscitative procedures. All that is needed are two hands.

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