Mitral stenosis is the most common cause for pulmonary hemosiderosis. Pulmonary hemosiderosis may also occur without known etiology, and 112 cases of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis have been reported. Soergel and Sommers1 found that this disease appears most commonly in children between 1 and 7 years of age and in most adults before the fourth decade. The average duration of symptoms until death was 2 1/2 years. Only a minority of patients were free of symptoms after an average period of observation of about 4 years. A common, though not invariable, pattern begins with mild intrapulmonary bleeding in the child. The chest roentgenogram may show transient pulmonary infiltration. Sputum cells contain hemosiderin. Soon brisk bleeding and hemoptysis occur associated with severe hypochromic anemia. After a few years of repeated bleeding episodes, pulmonary fibrosis may result, but such a development is not predictable from the number of bleeding episodes. In about 1
PULMONARY HEMOSIDEROSIS. JAMA. 1962;181(12):1070. doi:10.1001/jama.1962.03050380048013
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