The author has presented a classification comprising 5 major innocent murmurs which have been described on the basis of their own positive features. These include the vibratory, pulmonic ejection, and cardiorespiratory murmurs, the venous hum, and the carotid bruit. Each type may simulate the murmur of one or more organic cardiac lesions. Simultaneous phonocardiograms and electrocardiograms, taken from 5 patients between 6 and 8 years of age, are reproduced to illustrate these points. A clinical approach is discussed which should enable the physician to establish a positive diagnosis of the specific innocent murmur or organic lesion without recourse to expensive or hazardous diagnostic procedures.
Castle RF. Clinical Recognition of Innocent Cardiac Murmurs in Children. JAMA. 1961;177(1):1–5. doi:10.1001/jama.1961.03040270003001
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