In an effort to obviate vomiting in athletes before important competitive events, a liquid meal was devised, and its ingestion was so timed that the stomach would be empty at the beginning of the game. The volume of the liquid meal, served cold at 10:30 A.M., was 474 cc. It supplied 925 large calories; of these 68%, 24%, and 8% were contributed respectively by carbohydrate, protein, and fat. It passed through the stomach in less than 2 hours. It did not differ from the conventional solid meal with respect to subsequent hunger, diarrhea, or weight changes, but in those who took it dryness of the mouth was less frequent during the game, strength and endurance seemed to be improved, and both vomiting and muscular cramps were eliminated.
Rose KD, Schneider PJ, Sullivan GF. A Liquid Pregame Meal for Athletes: Report on a Field Trial. JAMA. 1961;178(1):30–33. doi:10.1001/jama.1961.03040400032006
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