SURGEONS have long expressed the fear that their manipulation of a cancer in its removal produces embolization of malignant cells with a resultant dissemination of disease. In 1958, Schatten1 gave laboratory support to this opinion. After experimentally removing "primary" tumors without manipulation, Lewis and Cole2 also observed a higher incidence of metastasis in these animals than in those animals whose "primary" tumor was left undisturbed. They suggested that the stress of surgery had altered the biologic behavior of the tumor.
The present study was designed to provide additional information concerning the effects of surgical removal of a primary tumor and the effects of surgical stress alone in the production of metastasis in 3 tumor-host systems.
The tumor-host systems studied were: (1) Cloudman S-91 melanoma carried in DBA/2 mice, (2) Osteogenic Sarcoma 112 in C3HHFB/HEN mice, and (3) Sarcoma T-241 in C57 BL/6JN mice.Tumor inoculum
Kinsey DL. Effects of Surgery upon Cancer Metastasis. JAMA. 1961;178(7):734–735. doi:10.1001/jama.1961.73040460012007d
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