Carl Ludwig's influence on 19th century physiological thought, directly through his scientific contributions and indirectly through his pupils, was remarkable. This preceptor to a multitude was born in Witzenhausen on the Weser near Cassel. His father, an officer in the Napoleonic wars, disabled in service, was rewarded with a civilian post in Hanau. After finishing at the Gymnasium, Ludwig attended the University of Marburg, where he suffered facial wounds in dueling and temporarily lost his academic standing as a result of unacceptable political activities. After interim courses at Erlangen and Bamberg, he returned to Marburg in 1839 and received the doctor's degree.1 He became prosector in anatomy under Fick and the following year was admitted to the faculty, offering a dissertation on the mechanism of renal secretion.2 Ludwig changed academic titles and university professorships several times over a period of 25 years. He advanced with each new appointment,
CARL FREDERICK WILHELM LUDWIG (1816-1895) MODERN PHYSIOLOGIST. JAMA. 1967;200(10):887–888. doi:10.1001/jama.1967.03120230139028
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