Venography through the common femoral veins demonstrated that dyspareunia following recurrent pelvic, groin, and lower-extremity thrombophlebitis was caused by pelvic varicosities resulting from occlusion of the common iliac veins and inferior vena cava. An adequate collateral circulation via ascending lumbar, vertebral, gonadal (vaginal, uterine, and ovarian), and caval (azygos system)
Steinberg I. Pelvic Varicosities Due to Thrombophlebitis: Report of a Case Following Occlusion of the Iliac Veins and Inferior Vena Cava. JAMA. 1967;202(1):68–70. doi:10.1001/jama.1967.03130140126031
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