By studying compression and by analyzing instantaneous vectors of electrocardiographic artifacts produced by closed-chest cardiac massage in 12 patients, a primary mechanical etiology for the complexes was apparent. The recognition of the artifactual electrocardiogram proved useful in the differentiation of intrinsic from extrinsic electrical cardiac activity. Since the configuration of the electrocardiographic artifact is directly related to the method of sternal compression, it is of value in the instruction of proper technique for closed-chest cardiac massage.
Saphir R, Falsetti HL. The Artifactual Electrocardiogram Recorded During Closed-Chest Massage. JAMA. 1967;202(7):571–574. doi:10.1001/jama.1967.03130200057008
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