To the Editor:—
The most common cause of fever and splenomegaly in the world at large is malaria, but this diagnosis is not routinely entertained for children who present with such symptoms in the United States. In Connecticut, malaria developed in an infant after two exchange transfusions for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of infantile malaria secondary to exchange transfusion which has been reported in the United States.
Report of a Case:—
During the first 36 hours of life, the full-term product of an uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery received two exchange transfusions because of hyperbilirubinemia secondary to Rh incompatibility. The child was discharged from the hospital at five days of age and was well until two months at which time recurrent low-grade fevers developed. The patient was treated symptomatically during the next few months with antipyretics, but by 61/2 months of age
Czapek EE, Barry DW, Gryboski JD. Malaria in an Infant Transmitted by Transfusion. JAMA. 1968;204(6):549–550. doi:10.1001/jama.1968.03140190131020
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