[Skip to Content]
[Skip to Content Landing]
October 7, 1968

How to Interpret Electrocardiograms in Terms of Vectors: A Practical Manual

JAMA. 1968;206(2):379. doi:10.1001/jama.1968.03150020095038

This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables.


The augmented unipolar extremity leads (aVR, aVL, and aVF) devised by Emanuel Goldberger in 1942 are now recorded in almost every electrocardiogram. With these and other unipolar leads, Goldberger provided support for the vector concept of cardiac activation, demonstrated the electrical position of the heart, and distinguished normal from abnormal lead patterns. During the following years, he trained students who have since become leading electrocardiographers and clinicians. Now he emphasizes the superiority of visualizing the entire electrical field of the heart by the vectorcardiogram over visualizing the limited field provided by the electrocardiogram.

Dr. Goldberger has provided a new and rather elementary book to show the principles of vector analysis, the normal cardiac vectors, and the abnormal cardiac vectors. Clearly and simply written with a minimum of confusing mathematics, the book serves to introduce the subject very well for beginners. Dr. Goldberger devotes considerable attention to the construction of vectorcardiograms