The transplanted ureter is as vulnerable as the transplanted kidney to immunological attack by the host. Other factors may contribute to altered ureteral function such as obstruction, infection, periureteral fibrosis, surgical trauma, and injury to the blood supply during surgery. To study these factors, we examined the transplanted ureters by means of intravenous cineurograms under normal conditions and during the above complications. The factor most commonly associated with absent peristalsis was active rejection. Ureteral peristalsis was present in only 25% of patients with clinically apparent rejection. It was present in 84% of patients with stable renal function. Peristalsis improved with reversal of the rejection process.
Belitsky P, Klauber GT, Toth J, Morehouse DD, MacKinnon KJ. Ureteral Dynamics in Human Renal TransplantationA Cineradiographic Study. JAMA. 1972;220(8):1087–1089. doi:10.1001/jama.1972.03200080031007
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