In Chicago from 1964 through 1969, one death from leukemia was recorded among 54,414 infants 0 through 6 years of age, who were vaccinated at birth with BCG vaccine, a rate of 0.31/100,000/yr. In contrast, among 172,986 infants of a similar age and race who were not vaccinated, 21 deaths were reported, a rate of 2.02/100,000/ yr. The difference is statistically significant (P =.04) and suggests the value of BCG vaccinations in preventing leukemia in children, but since this is a retrospective study, no firm conclusions can be drawn.
Rosenthal R, Crispen RG, Thorne MG, Piekarski N, Raisys N, Rettig PG. BCG Vaccination and Leukemia Mortality. JAMA. 1972;222(12):1543–1544. doi:10.1001/jama.1972.03210120041010
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