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In this small monograph on general toxicology, with consideration for its molecular and biochemical principles, the goal is to provide briefly the three main phases of toxic action as it relates to various compounds: (1) the exposure phase, which includes factors that determine the uptake of the toxic agent from the environment, (2) the pharmacokinetic or toxokinetic phase, which includes processes such as adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion factors that determine the biologic availability of the toxic substance, and (3) the pharmacodynamic or toxodynamic phase, which covers the various mechanisms involved in the induction of the toxic effect on specific organs or systems.
Included in the publication are the dose-response and time-response relationships necessary for a full understanding of toxicological mechanisms, interaction among various compounds, a focus on the systemic site of action by toxic agents, which relates to the specific kind of injury produced, toxicological risks of dangerous substances
Arena JM. Introduction to General Toxicology. JAMA. 1976;236(19):2226. doi:10.1001/jama.1976.03270200060044
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