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April 4, 1977

An Atlas of Non-Invasive Techniques: Sound and Pulse Tracings—Echograms

Author Affiliations

Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine Chicago

JAMA. 1977;237(14):1495. doi:10.1001/jama.1977.03270410095039

This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables.


Brilliant illumination of obscure cardiac diagnoses by invading the heart with catheter and contrast materials may seem to cast into shadows the classical modes of inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation. Actually, however, from these shadows now comes a greater and more reliable diagnostic yield because the importance of the ordinary physical findings has been promptly and regularly verified by the invasive techniques. This yield has been further enhanced by instrumental recording of the pulsations, sound, and motions of the chest wall overlying the heart. For more than 40 years, Luisada has led investigations for making accurate permanent records of these otherwise fleeting phenomena and for correlating them with their physiologic and pathologic origins.

The atlas shows the steady improvement from the rather primitive perspectives when Luisada first began to record the phenomena graphically. Luisada shows how filtration was developed to show selected parts of the broad vibratory spectrum emitted from