In a group of 20 consecutive patients hospitalized with severe traumatic shock, mean plasma glucagon levels averaged 328±65μμg/ml, significantly above the normal fasting levels. Insulin concentration was normal, and plasma glucose levels averaged 188 (±14) mg/100 ml, significantly above normal. Insulin-glucagon molar ratio was low in 17 of the 20 patients. In three patients undergoing major surgery without associated hypotension, glucagon concentrations did not rise comparably. Hyperglucagonemia without a proportional rise in insulin may be the usual islet cell response to severe trauma and possibly could contribute to survival.
Lindsey A, Santeusanio F, Braaten J, Faloona GR, Unger RH. Pancreatic Alpha-Cell Function in Trauma. JAMA. 1974;227(7):757–761. doi:10.1001/jama.1974.03230200015003
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