Twenty Jehovah's Witnesses (age range: 17 months to 76 years) underwent central or peripheral vascular surgery for congenital or acquired disease. Two patients died: one (74 years old) from myocardial infarction, the other after a subsequent open heart operation. Hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit readings were not low enough in any patient to urge blood transfusion. Hospital convalescence averaged one week. Overall results compared favorably with results in other patients, indicating that a good outcome can be obtained in vascular surgery without blood transfusion.
Simmons CW, Messmer BJ, Hallman GL, Cooley DA. Vascular Surgery in Jehovah's Witnesses. JAMA. 1970;213(6):1032–1034. doi:10.1001/jama.1970.03170320060016
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