In 1971, the American Rheumatism Association (ARA) Committee on Therapeutic Criteria proposed "Preliminary Criteria for the Classification of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus [SLE]".1Any four of the 14 items listed below, when present, indicate SLE.1
Facial erythema (butterfly rash)
Discoid lupus erythematosus
Oral or nasopharyngeal ulceration
Arthritis without deformity
Lupus erythematosus cells
Chronic false-positive serologic test for syphilis
Pleuritis or pericarditis
Psychosis or convulsions
Hemolytic anemia or leukopenia or thrombocytopenia
These criteria were formulated by computer analysis of 57 symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings in 245 patients (with "unequivocal SLE") under the care of 52 different rheumatologists in the United States and Canada. Insufficient data at the time of evaluating these records prevented further analyses of such commonly used tests as antinuclear antibody, Coombs test, anti-DNA antibody, tissue biopsies, and direct immunofluorescence of skin biopsy specimen.
The first six criteria relate
Rabhan NB, Minkin W. Criteria for Classification of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. JAMA. 1975;231(8):846. doi:10.1001/jama.1975.03240200044026
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