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In most countries of the world, breast cancer remains the most serious malignant neoplasm of women. During the first half of the 20th century, the radical mastectomy of Halsted was the "gold standard" by which any new treatment method was evaluated. In the latter half of this century it is clear that less radical methods of treatment may produce similar results, but the definition of "less radical" has engendered a variety of approaches, each with its staunch supporters equipped with convincing statistics. Improvements in radiation equipment and techniques now make local tumor control possible, but long-term follow-up in this country is necessary before full acceptance of this method as an alternative treatment. Other current issues are endocrine manipulation, timing and composition of chemotherapy, and the role of immunotherapy.
The Society for Continuing Education and The Johns Hopkins Hospital, being aware of the prolific ongoing research in this field, with the
Abel WG. Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer: International Clinical Forum. JAMA. 1982;247(6):888. doi:10.1001/jama.1982.03320310114058
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