THE FIRST total artificial heart was implanted in a dog by Akutsu and Kolff1 in 1957; this device sustained life for six hours. Since then, animal survival times with the artificial heart have increased dramatically, and refinements in the mechanics of the device have resulted in the development of an effective, gentle blood pump operated by a hemodynamically responsive drive system.2,3
Human use of a total artificial heart occurred initially in 1969 and again in 1981.4,5 Cooley performed these first two implants as an interim measure until orthotopic cardiac transplantation could be accomplished. His efforts were followed by the first implantation of an artificial heart as a permanent replacement for the human heart in 1982.6,7 By the end of 1986, a total of five permanent implant procedures had been accomplished, and 38 devices had been implanted as a bridge to transplantation.8,9 As technological advances result
DeVries WC. Surgical Technique for Implantation of the Jarvik-7-100 Total Artificial Heart. JAMA. 1988;259(6):875–880. doi:10.1001/jama.1988.03720060043028
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