In a cohort study of 50,282 pregnancies recruited between 1958 and 1965, there were 462 gravidae who used nonmercurial spermicides (mostly nonoxynol-9 and octoxynol); the estimated rate ratio for major malformations was 0.9 (95% confidence limits, 0.6 to 1.6). There were also 889 women who used phenylmercuric acetate (no longer available as a spermicide); the corresponding rate ratio was 0.9 (0.6 to 1.3). Limb reduction deformities, neoplasms, Down's syndrome, and hypospadias did not occur in excess in children exposed to spermicides.
Shapiro S, Slone D, Heinonen OP, et al. Birth Defects and Vaginal Spermicides. JAMA. 1982;247(17):2381–2384. doi:10.1001/jama.1982.03320420031027
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