Twenty-four patients underwent operation for ventricular septal rupture secondary to acute myocardial infarction. There were 14 hospital survivors (58%) and two late deaths (8%). There were eight hospital deaths (62%) of 13 patients referred in cardiogenic shock, but only two deaths (18%) of 11 patients not in shock at time of referral. All 12 current survivors showed clinical improvement, and 11 of them are in New York Heart Association functional class I or II. Eleven patients had bedside catheterization with a balloon catheter and were operated on immediately thereafter, and eight survived (73%) with no late deaths at five years. With formal heart catheterization followed by operation, there were only six survivors of 13 operated on (46%).
Matsui K, Kay JH, Mendez M, Zubiate P, Vanstrom N, Yokoyama T. Ventricular Septal Rupture Secondary to Myocardial InfarctionClinical Approach and Surgical Results. JAMA. 1981;245(15):1537–1539. doi:10.1001/jama.1981.03310400019018
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