Three hundred fifteen smokers who attended a family practice clinic and wished to quit smoking were assigned in a random, double-blind manner to receive either nicotine (2 mg) or placebo gum. Smokers initially received brief advice from a physician and nurse, a slide presentation and written materials (29 to 35 minutes), and a single follow-up visit (12 to 20 minutes) one week after cessation. After corrections for marital status and income, 10% of those who received nicotine gum and 7% of those who received placebo gum reported continuous abstinence for 11 months and passed observer and biochemical verification (this difference was not statistically significant). We conclude that, when used in a nonselected group of smokers along with a brief intervention in a general medical practice, the pharmacologic effects of nicotine gum to increase cessation are either small or nonexistent.
Hughes JR, Gust SW, Keenan RM, Fenwick JW, Healey ML. Nicotine vs Placebo Gum in General Medical Practice. JAMA. 1989;261(9):1300–1305. doi:10.1001/jama.1989.03420090064032
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