The 1980s have been characterized by a wave of clinical research. These efforts have made us more discerning clinicians and improved the quality of patient care. Sophisticated noninvasive equipment and techniques allow us an extended latitude in human investigation. Such multidisciplinary efforts are designed to broaden the problem-solving ability of physicians. Several research advances have affected surgery during 1988 in the areas of cancer, immunotherapy, trauma, gut hormones, transplantation, and lithotripsy.
The May 1988 Clinical Alert From the National Cancer Institute was unprecedented, in that the information from uncompleted manuscripts was released prior to peer review through journals. The National Cancer Institute concluded that the potential impact of these findings was so great as to necessitate that practicing physicians be informed in advance of publication. This release was based on three studies: the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Project (B-13 and B-14) and INT(international)-0011. The National Cancer Institute stated "that whereas
Organ CH. Surgery. JAMA. 1989;261(19):2892–2894. doi:10.1001/jama.1989.03420190168062
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