To study the association of maternal cocaine use during early pregnancy with the occurrence of congenital urogenital anomalies, we analyzed data from the population-based Atlanta Birth Defects Case-Control Study. We identified 276 and 791 case-babies with urinary and genital anomalies, respectively, who were live born and stillborn to residents of metropolitan Atlanta from 1968 through 1980. There were 2835 and 2973 respective control-babies born without birth defects randomly selected through birth certificates. Maternal cocaine use during early pregnancy was defined as reported use at any time from 1 month before the pregnancy began through the first 3 months of pregnancy. We found a statistically significant association of reported cocaine use with an increased risk for urinary tract defects (crude odds ratio, 4.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 17.24) and no statistically significant association with genital organ defects (odds ratio, 2.26; confidence interval, 0.67 to 7.62). The findings from this study were consistent with a previously reported association of maternal cocaine use and urinary tract anomalies in animal and clinical studies.
Chávez GF, Mulinare J, Cordero JF. Maternal Cocaine Use During Early Pregnancy as a Risk Factor for Congenital Urogenital Anomalies. JAMA. 1989;262(6):795–798. doi:10.1001/jama.1989.03430060091031
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