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December 17, 1982

Blinking and Blepharospasm: Mechanism, Diagnosis, and Management

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Medical Center (Dr Jankovic), and the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas School of Medicine (Dr Wilkins), Houston; and the Department of Ophthalmology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles (Dr Havins).

JAMA. 1982;248(23):3160-3164. doi:10.1001/jama.1982.03330230060037

This review discusses the mechanisms of spontaneous blinking and the differential diagnosis and treatment of blepharospasm. Blinking rate is altered in various extrapyramidal disorders, suggesting an important role of the basal ganglia in generation and control of blinking. Focal dystonia is responsible for essential blepharospasm, Meige's syndrome, and tardive facial dystonia, but other biochemical, reflex, and neuromuscular mechanisms may be involved in this common and often disabling symptom.

(JAMA 1982;248:3160-3164)