In a blinded experiment, we report the first allelic association of the dopamine D2 receptor gene in alcoholism. From 70 brain samples of alcoholics and nonalcoholics, DNA was digested with restriction endonucleases and probed with a clone that contained the entire 3' coding exon, the polyadenylation signal, and approximately 16.4 kilobases of noncoding 3' sequence of the human dopamine D2 receptor gene (λhD2G1). In the present samples, the presence of A1 allele of the dopamine D2 receptor gene correctly classified 77% of alcoholics, and its absence classified 72% of nonalcoholics. The polymorphic pattern of this receptor gene suggests that a gene that confers susceptibility to at least one form of alcoholism is located on the q22-q23 region of chromosome 11.
Blum K, Noble EP, Sheridan PJ, Montgomery A, Ritchie T, Jagadeeswaran P, Nogami H, Briggs AH, Cohn JB. Allelic Association of Human Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene in Alcoholism. JAMA. 1990;263(15):2055–2060. doi:10.1001/jama.1990.03440150063027