Inclusion of the four additional variables suggested by Washington et al in the model did not appreciably change the odds ratios in the overall comparisons (adjusted odds ratio when oral contraceptive use was compared with non-oral contraceptive use was 0.61 and when compared with use of no method was 0.54).The reanalysis performed by Washington et al does not contradict our conclusions. In their table, users of different birth control methods are compared with users of no method. Most case women in the "any method other than OC" group either used barrier methods or had been sterilized (our Table 2). Few doubt that barrier methods and sterilization reduce the risk of PID. Our Table 2 shows that use of intrauterine devices certainly did not reduce the risk of PID. Case women in the group "any method other than OC or barrier" in the table of Washington et
Wolner-Hanssen P, Eschenbach DA, Paavonen J, et al. Risk of Chlamydial PID and Oral Contraceptives-Reply. JAMA. 1990;264(16):2073–2074. doi:10.1001/jama.1990.03450160040016
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