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A 19-year-old woman with a serious kidney disease needs a transplant. Tests run on her immediate family show that only her 16-year-old brother has sufficient tissue compatibility. Meeting alone with the brother, the physician outlines the personal risks of donating a kidney and explains the benefits for the sister, urging the boy to donate but assuring him that, if he declines, the family will simply be told that the boy was biologically unsuitable. The brother decides to decline.
Medical decision making: analyzing options in the face of uncertainty. JAMA. 1983;249(16):2133–2142. doi:10.1001/jama.1983.03330400003001
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