THE SURVIVAL of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has improved over the past decade due to the use of antiretroviral therapy and better management of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)—related opportunistic infections. Some opportunistic infections are declining in incidence due to the use of effective chemoprophylaxis. From the period 1985 to 1987 to the period 1991 to 1992, for example, the incidence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) as an AIDS-defining illness in the United States declined from 60.9% to 42.5% (written communication, Jonathan Kaplan, MD, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga, March 1995). However, as patients live longer with very low CD4 counts, it is not surprising that the incidence of other opportunistic infections has increased. Over the same time intervals, the incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis has increased from 2.8% of AIDS-defining illnesses to 5.9%.1Pneumocystis carinii prophylaxis has been responsible for much of
Polis MA, Masur H. Promising New Treatments for Cytomegalovirus Retinitis. JAMA. 1995;273(18):1457–1459. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03520420073041
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