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January 3, 1996

Efficacy of Acellular Pertussis Vaccine in Early Childhood After Household Exposure

Author Affiliations

From the Children's Hospital, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz (Germany) (Dr Schmitt); Institute for Hygiene and Laboratory Medicine (Dr von König) and Children's Hospital (Dr Schulte-Wissermann), Municipal Hospital of Krefeld, Germany; Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Technical University, Munich, Germany (Dr Neiss); SmithKline Beecham Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium (Drs Bogaerts, Clemens, and Bock); Children's Hospital, University of Göttingen (Germany) (Dr Gahr); Pediatricians of Flensburg (Germany) (Dr Schult); Children's Hospital Offenburg (Germany) (Dr Folkens); and Children's Hospital, Mutterhaus der Borromäerinnen, Trier, Germany (Dr Rauh). Dr Schmitt is currently affiliated with Children's Hospital, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany.

JAMA. 1996;275(1):37-41. doi:10.1001/jama.1996.03530250041024

Objective.  —To evaluate the efficacy of a three-dose primary vaccination with a diphtheria-tetanus tricomponent acellular pertussis vaccine against "typical" pertussis, defined as a spasmodic cough of 21 days or longer with confirmation of Bordetella pertussis infection by culture or serology.

Design.  —Passive monitoring for suspected first household (index) cases of typical pertussis in six areas in Germany comprising 22 505 children vaccinated with study vaccine at 3, 4, and 5 months of age. Blinded, prospective follow-up of household contacts of index cases for incidence and progression of pertussis.

Setting.  —Six areas in Germany with a high incidence of pertussis.

Subjects.  —Four hundred fifty-three households with index cases comprising 360 evaluable contacts eligible for analysis of vaccine efficacy.

Main Outcome Measure.  —Vaccine efficacy from attack rates of pertussis in household contacts classified by vaccination status.

Results.  —Of the 173 nonvaccinated household contacts, 96 developed typical pertussis, compared with seven of 112 contacts vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccine. Vaccine efficacy was consequently calculated to be 88.7% (95% confidence interval, 76.6% to 94.6%). Protection did not wane until at least the time recommended for booster vaccination. None of the analyzed potential confounding factors—age, socioeconomic status, erythromycin treatment, household composition, center effect, and selection bias—influenced study results in favor of the vaccine.

Conclusions.  —Under conditions of intense household exposure, primary vaccination with acellular vaccine protected against pertussis until at least the time recommended for booster vaccination. The vaccine can be expected to be equally or more effective in settings with lower infectious pressure.(JAMA. 1996;275:37-41)