During exercise in the heat, sweat output often exceeds water intake, resulting in hypohydration, which is defined as a body fluid deficit. This fluid deficit is comprised of water loss from both the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments. Hypohydration during exercise causes a greater heat storage and reduces endurance in comparison with euhydration levels. The greater heat storage is attributed to a decreased sweating rate (evaporative heat loss) as well as a decreased cutaneous blood flow (dry heat loss). These response decrements have been attributed to both plasma hyperosmolality and a plasma hypovolemia. Subject gender, acclimation state, and aerobic fitness do not alter the increased heat storage when hypohydrated. Hyperhydration, or body fluid excess, does not seem to provide a clear advantage during exercise-heat stress, but will delay the development of hypohydration.
Sawka MN, Francesconi RP, Young AJ, Pandolf KB. Influence of Hydration Level and Body Fluids on Exercise Performance in the Heat. JAMA. 1984;252(9):1165–1169. doi:10.1001/jama.1984.03350090041020
Customize your JAMA Network experience by selecting one or more topics from the list below.
Create a personal account or sign in to: