We welcome the new analysis by Band and colleagues of data from the collaborative study to determine the efficacy of rifampin prophylaxis for prevention of secondary H influenzae disease. With the new analysis, statistical significance (P=.028) is achieved by combining data from children receiving the regimens of 10 mg/kg per dose and 20 mg/kg per dose. The authors changed their protocol during the study because the regimen of 10 mg/kg per dose proved unreliable in eradication of H influenzae colonization. Thus, it would seem inappropriate at this time to combine results from the regimen of 10 mg/kg per dose with those from children in the second phase of their study, during which the regimen of 20 mg/kg per dose was used. Was the decision to combine these data made before it was known to which group subsequent cases had been assigned and before analysis began? Would a
Murphy TV, Osterholm MT. Prophylaxis of Hemophilus influenzae Type b Disease-Reply. JAMA. 1984;252(23):3250. doi:10.1001/jama.1984.03350230011008
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